CADENTIAL STRUCTURE

Binary Statement of Cadence:  

     First Statement [ I – IV – V ]    
mm. 1 –  167

              
Initial Tonic [ I – ]     mm. 1 –  150

                    Initial Cadence    
mm. 1 –  22
                   
Second Statement of Cadence     mm. 22-31
                    Mediant Elaboration    
mm. 32 –  105
                        
[ – IV – V ] (transition)     mm. 32 –  55
                        
[ I – IV – V – I ]     mm. 56 –  105
                    Motion to Subdominant    
mm. 106 –  118
                   Prolongation of Subdominant     mm. 118 –  146
                    Return to Tonic ("tying-the-knot")    
mm. 146 –  156

              
Cadential Subdominant (Spanish) [ – IV – ]     m. 157

              
Cadential Dominant [ – V ]     mm. 158 – 167

    
Second Statement     mm. 168 –  284

          [ I – IV – V – I ]    
mm. 168 –  284

               Initial Tonic [ I – ]    
mm. 168 –  256

               Cadential Subdominant [ – IV – ]    
mm. 256 –  266

               Cadential Dominant [ – V ]    
mm. 267 –  270

               Closing Tonic [ – I ]    
mm. 271 –  284
OUTLINE
Cadential Structure in Beethoven's Piano Sonata op. 10 #1, 1st Movement
(outline below; see chart; see full discussion)
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Cadential structure in sonata-allegro form, and in many other examples of tonal music, does not coincide with thematic structure.  The result is structural counterpoint, dynamic tension between fundamental tendencies.  An outline of the thematic structure of the first movement of Beethoven's piano sonata in c-minor op. 10 #1 appears below; an outline of the cadential structure follows.  (Full discussion.)

January 8, 2006
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(see full discussion of op. 10 #1, 1st movement)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MODULES
Appendices
Cadential Structure in Beethoven's Piano Sonata, op. 10 #1, 1st Movement
Lester Allyson Knibbs, Ph.D.

Introduction

The Chaconne

Cadential Structure

Unitary & Binary Structures

Linear & Periodic Structures

Modules and Modalities

Structural Counterpoint

Modular Composition

Appendices ---
Site Map     /     Home Page
Mozart's K. 310

Beethoven's op. 10 #1

Structural Counterpoint
       in Two Liszt Etudes


THEMATIC STRUCTURE


Exposition     mm. 1 –  105

    
First Theme Group     mm. 1 –  31

          Theme I, part 1    
mm. 1 –  22
          Theme I, part 2    
mm. 22 –  31

    
Transition     mm. 32 –  56

    
Second Theme Group     mm. 56 –  105

          Theme II    
mm. 56 –  94
          Codetta    
mm. 94 –  105

Development     mm. 106 –  168

     First Section (transition)    
mm. 106 –  117
     Second Section (new theme)    
mm. 118 –  136
     Third Section (returning passage)    
mm. 136 –  168

Recapitulation     mm. 168 –  284

    
First Theme Group     mm. 168 –  190

          Theme I (part 1)    
mm. 168 –  190

    
Transition     mm. 191 –  215

    
Second Theme Group     mm. 215 –  284

          Theme II (1st statement)    
mm. 215 –  233
          Theme II (2nd statement)    
mm. 233 –  271
          Codetta    
mm. 271 –  284

EXAMPLES IN BEETHOVEN’S OTHER PIANO SONATAS

The following is a list of other Beethoven piano sonata movements that follow the cadential structure pattern discussed above:

Op. 2 No. 1 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 78
     Cadential subdominant:    
mm. 79-80
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 81-100
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 101

Op. 2 No. 3 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 126 (3rd and 4th beats)
     Cadential subdominant:    
mm. 127-128
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 129-138
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 139

Op. 10 No. 2 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
mm. 107-108
                               
mm. 109-130 (digression: motion to subdominant – inspired!)
     Cadential subdominant:    
mm. 131-132
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 133-136
     Tonic of Recapitulation:    
m. 137

Op. 10 No. 3 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
mm. 163-164
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish):    
mm. 165-166
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 167-183
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 184

Op. 14 No. 2 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 106 (1st beat)
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish):    
m. 106 (2nd beat)
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 107-124
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 125

Op. 27 No. 2 (third movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 85
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish*):    
m. 86
     Cadential dominant:   
mm. 87-101
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 102

    
or:

     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 85
                               
mm. 85-99
                                (motion to cadential subdominant by way of false cadential dominant)
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish*):    
m. 100
     Cadential dominant:    
m. 101
     Recapitulation (tonic):     
m. 102

Op. 31 No. 1 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 156 (1st beat)
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish*):    
mm. 156-157
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 158-193
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 194

Op. 31 No. 2 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
mm. 117-118
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish):    
mm. 119-120
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 121-138
     Recapitulation (begins on V6):    
m. 143

Op. 49 No. 1 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
mm. 52-53 (1st beat)
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish):    
m. 53
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 54-63
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 64

Op. 53 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
mm. 132-133
     Cadential subdominant (Neapolitan):    
mm. 134-135
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 136-155
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 156

Op. 57 (third movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
mm. 158-163
     Cadential subdominant (Neapolitan):    
mm. 164-167
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 168-211
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 212

Op. 79 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 110 (1st beat)
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish*):    
m. 110 (2nd and 3rd beats)
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 111-122
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 123

Op. 101 (third movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
mm. 176-190, or mm. 189-190 (as rhythm suggests)
     Cadential subdominant:    
mm. 190-191 (harmony vs. rhythm)
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 192-199
     Recapitulation (tonic):    
m. 200 (clearly!)

Op. 111 (first movement):
     Tying-the-knot:    
m. 84 (4th eighth)
     Cadential subdominant (Spanish*):    
mm. 84-85
     Cadential dominant:    
mm. 86-90
     Tonic of Recapitulation:    
m. 92

Op. 2 no. 3, op. 79, and especially op. 111 demonstrate that tying-the-knot can occur in an instant.  Op. 10 no. 1, op. 57, and perhaps also op. 101 demonstrate that it can be drawn out.
Op. 10 no. 3, op. 14 no. 2, op. 31 no. 2, and op. 49 no. 1 have the “(Spanish)” indication next to “cadential dominant” (as does Mozart’s K. 310 – see page 2 above) because the motion from the tonic to the cadential dominant is by way of the so-called “Phrygian cadence” – which, historically, is a Spanish cadence.  I propose, therefore, that we call it the “Spanish cadence”.  (Will the Phrygians object?)  Op. 27 no. 2, op. 31 no. 1, op. 79, and op. 111 have the “(Spanish*)” indication because the motion from the tonic to the cadential dominant is by way of a modified Spanish cadence.  There is a historical evolution from the Spanish cadence by way of the modified Spanish cadence to the [I-IV-V] of cadential structure.  I believe that I can demonstrate with historical examples that the Spanish cadence, arriving in the form of
diferencias and other variation techniques, was the catalyst in the development of modern tonality, the foundation of which is cadential structure.

Tonal music works, not on some “universal” theoretical basis, but on a foundation of historical development peculiar to particular times and particular places and the interactions, through war and peace, commerce and communication, between peoples and cultures.